Tudományos kitekintés – Pszichiátria

Depression’s “Transcriptional Signatures” Differ in Men vs. Women

Divergent illness processes may point to sex-specific treatments   Brain gene expression associated with depression differed markedly between men and women in a study by NIMH-funded researchers.  Such divergent “transcriptional signatures” may signal divergent underlying illness processes that may require sex-specific treatments, they suggest. Experiments in chronically-stressed male and female mice that developed depression-like behaviors(…)

A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers.

A/T/N: An unbiased descriptive classification scheme for Alzheimer disease biomarkers. Source: Alzforum 09 Aug 2016 The use of biomarkers has transformed scientists’ view of Alzheimer’s disease, revealing that pathology begins to accumulate more than 20 years before clinical symptoms. This knowledge paved the way for secondary prevention trials. Now, tau PET is further changing conceptions(…)

Schizophrenia’s strongest known genetic risk deconstructed

Schizophrenia’s strongest known genetic risk deconstructed

  Suspect gene may trigger runaway synaptic pruning during adolescence – NIH-funded study January 27, 2016 • Press Release   Versions of a gene linked to schizophrenia may trigger runaway pruning of the teenage brain’s still-maturing communications infrastructure, NIH-funded researchers have discovered.  People with the illness show fewer such connections between neurons, or synapses.  The gene(…)

A novel Alzheimer disease locus located near the gene encoding tau protein.

Mol Psychiatry. 2016 Jan;21(1):108-117. doi: 10.1038/mp.2015.23. Epub 2015 Mar 17. Jun G et a. Abstract APOE ɛ4, the most significant genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), may mask effects of other loci. We re-analyzed genome-wide association study (GWAS) data from the International Genomics of Alzheimer‘s Project (IGAP) Consortium in APOE ɛ4+ (10 352 cases and(…)

Personalized Medicine and Mood Disorders.

Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2015 Sep;38(3):395-403. doi: 10.1016/j.psc.2015.05.003. Epub 2015 Jun 20. Alhajji L1, Nemeroff CB2.  Abstract Some of the latest advances in personalized psychiatry with future research directions are discussed in this article. Many factors contribute to the phenotypic psychiatric profile in individual patients. These overlapping factors include but are not limited to genetics,(…)

The potential of immune biomarkers to advance personalized medicine approaches for schizophrenia.

J Nerv Ment Dis. 2015 May;203(5):393-9. Cox D, Chan MK, Bahn S.   Molecular profiling studies have helped increase the understanding of the immune processes thought to be involved in the etiology and pathophysiology of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. Current therapeutic interventions with first- and second-generation antipsychotics are suboptimal. Poor response rates and debilitating(…)

The Human Model: Changing Focus on Autism Research

Biol Psychiatry. 2015 Mar 17. pii: S0006-3223(15)00226-7. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2015.03.012. [Epub ahead of print] Muotri AR1. Abstract The lack of live human brain cells for research has slowed progress toward understanding the mechanisms underlying autism spectrum disorders. A human model using reprogrammed patient somatic cells offers an attractive alternative, as it captures a patient’s genome in(…)

Major depressive disorder: mechanism-based prescribing for personalized medicine.

Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2015 Mar 31;11:875-88. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S73261. eCollection 2015. Saltiel PF1, Silvershein DI2. Abstract Individual patients with depression present with unique symptom clusters – before, during, and even after treatment. The prevalence of persistent, unresolved symptoms and their contribution to patient functioning and disease progression emphasize the importance of finding the right treatment choice(…)

Toward stratified treatments for bipolar disorders.

Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015 Mar;25(3):283-94. doi: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.12.006. Epub 2015 Jan 2. Hasler G1, Wolf A2. Abstract In bipolar disorders, there are unclear diagnostic boundaries with unipolar depression and schizophrenia, inconsistency of treatment guidelines, relatively long trial-and-error phases of treatment optimization, and increasing use of complex combination therapies lacking empirical evidence. These suggest that the current definition(…)

Biomarkers in psychosis: an approach to early identification and individualized treatment

Biomark Med. 2014;8(1):51-7. doi: 10.2217/bmm.13.134. Mirzakhanian H1, Singh F, Cadenhead KS Abstract Numerous biomarkers for somatic disorders are used in routine medical practice. Yet, despite remarkable advances in mental health research, we are not able to identify biomarkers with established clinical utility for mental disorders such as schizophrenia. While identification and characterization of biomarkers are(…)